Murray River

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The Murray River (River Murray in South Australia) is Australia's longest river. At 2,375 kilometres (1,476 mi) in length,[1] the Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains and, for most of its length, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between New South Wales and Victoria as it flows to the northwest, before turning south for its final 500 kilometres (310 mi) or so into South Australia, reaching the ocean at Lake Alexandrina.

The waters of the Murray flow through several lakes that fluctuate in salinity (and were often fresh until recent decades) including Lake Alexandrina and The Coorong before emptying through the Murray Mouth into the southeastern portion of the Indian Ocean, often referenced on Australian maps as the Southern Ocean, near Goolwa.[2] Despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times, particularly before the advent of large scale river regulation, the Mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow.

As of 2008, the Murray River only receives 36% of its natural flow, it is perhaps the most heavily irrigated and agriculturalised river in Australia.[citation needed]

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