Newington, London

related topics
{city, large, area}
{land, century, early}
{area, part, region}
{theory, work, human}
{county, mile, population}
{village, small, smallsup}

Coordinates: 51°29′56″N 0°05′24″W / 51.4988°N 0.0901°W / 51.4988; -0.0901

Newington is a district of London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark. It was a ancient parish and the site of the early administration of the county of Surrey. Forming part of the metropolitan area of London, it was the location of the County of London Sessions House from 1917, in a building now occupied by the Inner London Crown Court.

Contents

History

Toponymy

The name means "new farmstead" or the newer part of the manor of Walworth but because of its position on the principal road to the south-coast (Stane Street) subsumed it. The first mention of Newington (or Neweton) occurs in the Testa de Nevill (a survey of feudal tenure officially known as the Book of Fees compiled 1198-1242) during the reign of Henry III, wherein it is stated that the queens goldsmith holds of the king one acre of land in Neweton, by the service of rendering a gallon of honey.[1] In 1313 it is mentioned again in the Archbishop of Canterbury's Register as Newington juxta London.[2] The name is shared with streets called Newington Causeway and Newington Butts and in the open space Newington Gardens, formerly the location of Horsemonger Lane Gaol from 1791. Newington Ward is one of three local council wards in Walworth, covering the area from the West side of Walworth road up to the border with Lambeth.

Urban development

Newington gained in importance around 1200 with the establishment of Lambeth Palace nearby, which increased the local traffic. The area remained as a farming village with a low level of population until the second half of the 18th century. There was a little industry, for example, the manufacture of clay pipes for tobacco smoking. In William Shakespeare's time, there was a theatre called Newington Butts and later there were further theatres. New roads brought development opportunities. The local landowner and MP for Winchester, Henry Penton, started to sell some of his farmland. The 19th century brought more dense speculative housebuilding, and some philanthropic provision too. The Trinity House Estate, laid out around a 1820s classical church by Francis Octavius Bedford, is still largely in existence.

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