Nitrogen fixation

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{specie, animal, plant}
{food, make, wine}
{island, water, area}
{game, team, player}

Nitrogen fixation is the natural process, either biological or abiotic, by which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3).[1] This process is essential for life because fixed nitrogen is required to biosynthesize the basic building blocks of life, e.g., nucleotides for DNA and RNA and amino acids for proteins. Nitrogen fixation also refers to other abiological conversions of nitrogen, such as its conversion to nitrogen dioxide.

Nitrogen fixation is utilized by numerous prokaryotes, including bacteria, actinobacteria, and certain types of anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms that fix nitrogen are called diazotrophs. Some higher plants, and some animals (termites), have formed associations (symbioses) with diazotrophs. Nitrogen fixation also occurs as a result of non-biological processes. These include lightning, industrially through the Haber-Bosch Process, and combustion.[2] Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck.

Contents

Biological nitrogen fixation

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called nitrogenase.[1] The formula for BNF is:

The process is coupled to the hydrolysis of 16 equivalents of ATP and is accompanied by the co-formation of one molecule of H2. In free-living diazotrophs, the nitrogenase-generated ammonium is assimilated into glutamate through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway.

Full article ▸

related documents
Boric acid
Meitnerium
Haber process
RNA splicing
Halogen
Fuel
Tellurium
Ytterbium
Cadmium
Oxide
Radium
Carbohydrate
Nucleic acid
Chlorophyll
Sodium chloride
SDS-PAGE
Rhodium
Scandium
Strontium
Aluminium oxide
Formic acid
Tungsten
Hydronium
Biogas
Coenzyme
Ferrocene
Ultramarine
Ununhexium
Differential scanning calorimetry
Polymerase chain reaction