Ontology (information science)

related topics
{theory, work, human}
{math, number, function}
{system, computer, user}
{car, race, vehicle}
{language, word, form}
{group, member, jewish}
{woman, child, man}
{acid, form, water}

In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain.

In theory, an ontology is a "formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation".[1] An ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain — that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations.[2]

Ontologies are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework.

Contents

Overview

The term ontology has its origin in philosophy, and has been applied in many different ways. The word "ontology" comes from the Greek Ον (on), which literally means entity. The core meaning within computer science is a model for describing the world that consists of a set of types, properties, and relationship types. Exactly what is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology. There is also generally an expectation that there be a close resemblance between the real world and the features of the model in an ontology.[3]

Full article ▸

related documents
Abstraction
Id, ego, and super-ego
Consensus reality
Extrasensory perception
Analogy
Operational definition
Alvin Plantinga
Gestalt psychology
Expert
Begging the question
Ethnography
Essentialism
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Psychic
Literary criticism
Derek Parfit
Jeremy Bentham
Liar paradox
Hypothesis
Naturalistic fallacy
The Book of Healing
Willard Van Orman Quine
Knowledge Management
Dystopia
The Mismeasure of Man
Psychokinesis
Cultural anthropology
Direct realism
Stanley Fish
Teleology