P53

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p53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53), is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene.[1][2][3][4] p53 is important in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer. As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome", the "guardian angel gene", and the "master watchman", referring to its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation.[5]

The name p53 is in reference to its apparent molecular mass: It runs as a 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on SDS-PAGE. But, based on calculations from its amino acid residues, p53's mass is actually only 43.7 kDa. This difference is due to the high number of proline residues in the protein, which slow its migration on SDS-PAGE, thus making it appear heavier than it actually is.[6] This effect is observed with p53 from a variety of species, including humans, rodents, frogs, and fish.

Contents

Nomenclature

P53 is also known as:

  • UniProt name: Cellular tumor antigen p53
  • Antigen NY-CO-13
  • Phosphoprotein p53
  • Transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53)
  • Tumor suppressor p53

Gene

In humans, p53 is encoded by the TP53 gene located on the short arm of chromosome 17 (17p13.1).[1][2][3][4] TP53 orthologs [7] have been identified in most mammals for which complete genome data are available.

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