Permian–Triassic extinction event

related topics
{island, water, area}
{specie, animal, plant}
{acid, form, water}
{math, energy, light}
{rate, high, increase}
{day, year, event}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, informally known as the Great Dying,[1] was an extinction event that occurred 251.4 million years ago,[2][3] forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. It was the Earth's most severe extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine species[4] and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species becoming extinct[5] It is the only known mass extinction of insects.[6][7] Some 57% of all families and 83% of all genera were killed. Because so much biodiversity was lost, the recovery of life on Earth took significantly longer than after other extinction events.[4] This event has been described as the "mother of all mass extinctions".[8]

Researchers have variously suggested that there were from one to three distinct pulses, or phases, of extinction.[2][5][9][10] There are several proposed mechanisms for the extinctions; the earlier phase was likely due to gradual environmental change, while the latter phase has been argued to be due to a catastrophic event. Suggested mechanisms for the latter include large or multiple bolide impact events, increased volcanism, and sudden release of methane clathrate from the sea floor; gradual changes include sea-level change, anoxia, increasing aridity,[11] and a shift in ocean circulation driven by climate change.

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Yellowstone National Park
Irish Sea
Mangrove
Soil
Wetland
Granite
Coral reef
Appalachian Mountains
Geography of Poland
Geography of Guyana
Geography of Nepal
Geography of the Philippines
Geography of Austria
Geography of Honduras
Geography of Venezuela
Geography of Somalia
Geography of Mongolia
Long Valley Caldera
Mount Tambora
Drainage
Thunderstorm
Cyclone
Mindanao
Tasmania
Lake Tahoe
Climate change
Climate of the Alps
Geography of Madagascar
Geography of Turkey
Irrigation