Pinophyta

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Cordaitales
Pinales
  Pinaceae - Pine family
  Araucariaceae - Araucaria family
  Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family
  Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family
  Cupressaceae - Cypress family
  Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family
  Taxaceae - Yew family
Vojnovskyales
Voltziales

Coniferophyta
Coniferae

The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. Pinophytes are gymnosperms. They are cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all extant conifers are woody plants, the great majority being trees with just a few being shrubs. Typical examples of conifers include cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauris, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews.[1] The division contains approximately eight families, 68 genera, and 630 living species.[2][3] Although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are of immense ecological importance. They are the dominant plants over huge areas of land,[4] most notably the boreal forests of the northern hemisphere,[1] but also in similar cool climates in mountains further south. Boreal conifers have many winter time adaptions. The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs help them shed snow, many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening". While tropical rain forests have more biodiversity and turnover, the immense conifer forests of the world represent the largest terrestrial carbon sink, i.e. where carbon is bound as organic compounds. They are also of great economic value, primarily for timber and paper production;[1][4] the wood of conifers is known as softwood.

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