Privacy

related topics
{law, state, case}
{theory, work, human}
{system, computer, user}
{company, market, business}
{work, book, publish}
{government, party, election}
{group, member, jewish}
{woman, child, man}

Privacy (from Latin: privatus "separated from the rest, deprived of something, esp. office, participation in the government", from privo "to deprive") is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm. When something is private to a person, it usually means there is something within them that is considered inherently special or personally sensitive. The degree to which private information is exposed therefore depends on how the public will receive this information, which differs between places and over time. Privacy is broader than security and includes the concepts of appropriate use and protection of information.

The right against unsanctioned invasion of privacy by the government, corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws, and in some cases, constitutions. Almost all countries have laws which in some way limit privacy; an example of this would be law concerning taxation, which normally require the sharing of information about personal income or earnings. In some countries individual privacy may conflict with freedom of speech laws and some laws may require public disclosure of information which would be considered private in other countries and cultures. Privacy may be voluntarily sacrificed, normally in exchange for perceived benefits and very often with specific dangers and losses, although this is a very strategic view of human relationships. Academics who are economists, evolutionary theorists, and research psychologists describe revealing privacy as a 'voluntary sacrifice', where sweepstakes or competitions are involved. In the business world, a person may give personal details (often for advertising purposes) in order to enter a gamble of winning a prize. Information which is voluntarily shared and is later stolen or misused can lead to identity theft.

The concept of privacy is most often associated with Western culture, English and North American in particular. According to some researchers, the concept of privacy sets Anglo-American culture apart even from other Western European cultures such as French or Italian.[1] The concept is not universal and remained virtually unknown in some cultures until recent times.
The word "privacy" is sometimes regarded as untranslatable[2] by linguists. Many languages lack a specific word for "privacy". Such languages either use a complex description to translate the term (such as Russian combine meaning of уединение - solitude, секретность - secrecy, and частная жизнь - private life) or borrow English "privacy" (as Indonesian Privasi or Italian la privacy)[2].

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Barrister
Lawyer
Treason
Treaty
Eminent domain
Mandamus
Name change
Roe v. Wade
Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Marbury v. Madison
Solicitor
Article Three of the United States Constitution
International Court of Justice
National Rifle Association
Stolen Generations
Defamation
Australian Security Intelligence Organisation
Equity (law)
Roman law
Advance-fee fraud
Class action
Assata Shakur
Oath of office
Bush v. Gore
West Memphis 3
State court
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Patent
Magna Carta