Psilocybin

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Psilocybin (pronounced /ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SYE-bin; also known as psilocybine or 4-PO-DMT) is a prodrug for the classical hallucinogen - more specifically, psychedelic - psilocin, or 4-HO-DMT (4-hydroxyl-dimethyltryptamine), the active metabolite of psilocybin, responsible for all of the psychoactive effect of the drug. Both drugs are members of the indole and tryptamine classes. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used both recreationally, and traditionally, for spiritual purposes, as entheogens, with a history of use spanning millennia. It is produced by hundreds of species of fungi, including those of the genus Psilocybe, such as Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cyanescens, and has also been reportedly isolated from about a dozen other genera. Collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms, these are commonly called "boomers," "sacred mushrooms," "magic mushrooms," or more simply "'shrooms." Possession, and in some cases usage, of psilocybin or psilocin has been outlawed in most countries across the globe.[1] Proponents of its usage consider it to be an entheogen and a tool to supplement various types of practices for transcendence, including in meditation, psychonautics, and psychedelic psychotherapy. The intensity and duration of entheogenic effects of psilocybin mushrooms are highly variable, depending on species or cultivar of mushrooms, dosage, individual physiology, and set and setting.

Once ingested, psilocybin is rapidly metabolised to psilocin, which then acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors in the brain. The mind-altering effects of psilocybin typically last anywhere from 3 to 8 hours; however, to individuals under the influence of psilocybin, the effects may seem to last much longer, since the drug can distort the perception of time.

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