Randomization

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Randomization is the process of making something random; this means:

Contents

Applications

Randomization is used in statistics and in gambling.

Statistics

Randomization is a core principle in statistical theory, whose importance was emphasized by Charles S. Peirce in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference" (1883). Randomization-based inference is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling.

Randomized experiments

In the statistical theory of design of experiments, randomization involves randomly allocating the experimental units across the treatment groups. For example, if an experiment compares a new drug against a standard drug, then the patients should be allocated to either the new drug or to the standard drug control using randomization.

Randomized experimentation is not haphazard. Randomization reduces bias by equalising so-called factors ( independent variables) that have not been accounted for in the experimental design.

Survey sampling

Survey sampling uses randomization, following the criticisms of previous "representative methods" by Jerzy Neyman in his 1922 report to the International Statistical Institute.

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