Ravana

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Rāvaṇa (Sinhala: රාවණා, Sanskrit: रावण, IPA: [ˈrɑːʋəɳə]) is the king of Lanka and the primary antagonist in the Ramayana. In the classic text, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita, to claim vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of his sister Surpanakha.[1]

This depiction is, however, open to other interpretations. Ravana is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena. He has his apologists and staunch devotees within the Hindu traditions, some of whom believe that his description as a ten-headed person (Daśagrīva) is a reference to him possessing a very thorough knowledge over the 4 Vedas and 6 Upanishads, which made him as powerful as 10 scholars. An alternative interpretation[by whom?] is that he is guided by and does not have control over the five senses and five bodily instruments of action[citation needed]. His counterpart, Rama, on the contrary, is always in full control of these ten. However, there is mention in Atharvaveda of demonic Brahmans called Dasagva (ten-headed) and Navagva (nine-headed). These early beings may be the actual forerunners of the later character in the Ramayana[original research?].

Ravana also authored Ravana Sanhita, a powerful book on the Hindu astrology. Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of Ayurveda and political science. He is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, which was stored under his navel, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma.[2] According to some theories, he was a historical emperor who reigned over Sri Lanka from 2554 BC to 2517 BC.[3]

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