Revolution

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A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time. Its use to refer to political change dates[1] from the scientific revolution occasioned by Copernicus' famous De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.[2] Aristotle described two types of political revolution:

Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions.

Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center around several issues. Early studies of revolutions primarily analyzed events in European history from a psychological perspective, but more modern examinations include global events and incorporate perspectives from several social sciences, including sociology and political science. Several generations of scholarly thought on revolutions have generated many competing theories and contributed much to the current understanding of this complex phenomenon.

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Etymology

Copernicus named his treatise on the movements of planets around the sun "On the Revolutions of Celestial Bodies". 'Revolution' then passed from astronomy into astrological venacular; coming to representing abrupt change in the social order. Political usage of the word first appeared in 1688 as a description of the replacement of James II with William III. The process was termed "The Glorious Revolution".[4]

Political and socioeconomic revolutions

Perhaps most often, the word 'revolution' is employed to denote a change in socio-political institutions.[5][6][7] Jeff Goodwin gives two definitions of a revolution. A broad one, where revolution is

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