Royal Prussia

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Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie; Latin: Prussia Regalis) was a Region of the Kingdom of Poland from 1466, then of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1772). Royal Prussia included Pomerelia, Chełmno Land (Kulmerland), Malbork Voivodeship (Marienburg), Gdańsk (Danzig), Toruń (Thorn), and Elbląg (Elbing). Royal Prussia is distinguished from Ducal Prussia. Royal Prussia was a part of Poland, but Ducal Prussia was merely under Polish suzerainty as a Polish fief, (until 1657, when it passed outright to the Electors of Brandenburg, having been in personal union with Brandenburg since 1618). In old texts (until the 16th/17th c.) and in Latin the term Prut(h)enia refers to Royal Prussia, its eastern neighbour Ducal Prussia and their common predecessor Teutonic Prussia alike. The pertaining contemporary adjective is Prut(h)enic. Administratively Royal Prussia was part of the Greater Poland Province together with Greater Poland proper, Masovia, and Łęczyca and Sieradz Voivodeships, with the Province capital being Poznań.

Contents

History

Prior to the Teutonic Knights' invasion in the early 14th century, the region included Pomerelia and southwestern portions of Prussia.

Thirteen Years' War

During the Thirteen Years' War ("War of the Cities"), in February 1454, the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities of Gdańsk (Danzig), Elbląg (Elbing), and Toruń (Thorn), as well as gentry from Chełmno Land (Kulmerland) asked the Polish king for support against the Teutonic Order's rule and for incorporation of Prussia into the Polish kingdom. The rebellion also included major cities from the eastern part of the Order's lands, such as Kneiphof, a part of Königsberg. The war ended in October 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, which provided for the Order's cession to the Polish Crown of its rights over the western half of Prussia, including Pomerelia and the districts of Elbing, Malbork (Marienburg), and Chełmno (Kulm).

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