Saint Lawrence Seaway

related topics
{island, water, area}
{ship, engine, design}
{water, park, boat}
{company, market, business}
{line, north, south}
{build, building, house}
{specie, animal, plant}
{government, party, election}
{city, large, area}
{village, small, smallsup}
{day, year, event}

The Saint Lawrence Seaway (St. Lawrence Seaway), in French: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent, is the common name for a system of locks, canals and channels that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the North American Great Lakes, as far as Lake Superior. Legally it extends from Montreal to Lake Erie, including the Welland Canal. The seaway is named after the Saint Lawrence River, which it follows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. This section of the seaway is not a continuous canal, but rather comprises stretches of navigable channels within the river, a number of locks, as well as canals made to bypass rapids and dams in the waterway. A number of locks are managed by the Canadian Saint Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation and others by the U.S. Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.

Contents

History

The Saint Lawrence Seaway was preceded by a number of other canals. In 1871, locks on the Saint Lawrence allowed transit of vessels 186 ft (57 m) long, 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m) wide, and 9 ft (2.7 m) dep. The Welland Canal at that time allowed transit of vessels 142 ft (43 m) long, 26 ft (7.9 m) wide, and 10 ft (3.0 m) deep, but was generally too small to allow passage of larger ocean-going ships.

The first proposals for a binational comprehensive deep waterway along the St. Lawrence came in the 1890s. In the following decades the idea of a power project became inseparable from the seaway - in fact, the various governments involved believed that the deeper water created by the hydro project were necessary to make the seaway channels feasible. American proposals for development up to and including the First World War met with little interest from the Canadian federal government. But the two national government submitted St. Lawrence plans, and the Wooten-Bowden Report and the International Joint Commission both recommended the project in the early 1920s. Although the Liberal Mackenzkie King was reluctant to proceed, in part of because of opposition to the project in Quebec, in 1932 the two countries inked a treaty. This failed to receive the assent of Congress. Subsequent attempts to forge an agreement in the 1930s came to naught as the Ontario government of Mitchell Hepburn, along with Quebec, got in the way. By 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister King made an executive agreement to build the joint hydro and navigation works, but this too failed to receive the assent of Congress. Proposals for the seaway were met with resistance from railway and port lobbyists in the United States.

Full article ▸

related documents
Marlborough Sounds
Channels of the Hawaiian Islands
Organ Pipes National Park
Montara, California
Boodjamulla National Park
Mitchell River National Park
Iguazu Falls
Little Desert National Park
Charles River
Karakum Desert
Geography of the Republic of Ireland
Obduction
Geography of Malta
East Frisian Islands
Kingman Reef
Annapurna
Steppe
Geography of Guinea
Geography of Peru
Drumlin
Land bridge
Cumulonimbus cloud
Geography of Saint Helena
Laurasia
Geography of Eritrea
Geography of RĂ©union
Geography of the Republic of the Congo
Till
Vulcano
Hai River