Samarium

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{build, building, house}
{day, year, event}
{company, market, business}

Samarium (play /səˈmɛəriəm/ sə-MAIR-ee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Sm, atomic number 62 and atomic weight 150.36. It is a moderately hard silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium usually assumes the oxidation state +3; however, compounds of samarium(II) are also known, most notably monoxide SmO, monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe, as well as samarium(II) iodide. The last compound is a common reducing agent in chemical synthesis. Samarium has no significant biological role and is only slightly toxic.

Samarium was discovered in 1879 by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named after the mineral samarskite where it was isolated from. The mineral itself was earlier named after the Russian military engineer Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets who thereby became the first person to have a chemical element named after him, albeit indirectly. Although classified as a rare earth element, samarium is the 40th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is more common than such metals as tin. Samarium occurs with concentration up to 2.8% in several minerals including cerite, gadolinite, samarskite, monazite and bastnäsite, the last two being the most common commercial sources of the element. These minerals are mostly found in China, the USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia; China is by far the world leader in samarium mining and production.

Full article ▸

related documents
Hygroscopy
Electrode
Actinium
Alloy
Complementary DNA
Perchloric acid
Allotropy
Protactinium
Berkelium
Heavy metal (chemistry)
Compounds of carbon
Ductility
Microtubule
Pyrite
Hematite
Rutile
Active transport
Intron
Diamondoid
Wafer (electronics)
Cell biology
Condensation polymer
Tyrosine
Vapor
Polyatomic ion
Transuranium element
Peptidoglycan
G protein
Bicarbonate
Promethium