Standard Mandarin

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Standard Mandarin, also known as Mandarin, Standard Chinese, and Modern Standard Chinese,[3] is the official language of mainland China and Taiwan, and is one of the four official languages of Singapore.

The phonology is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese, a large and diverse group of Chinese dialects spoken across northern, central and southwestern China. The vocabulary is largely drawn from this group of dialects. The grammar is standardized to the body of modern literary works written in Vernacular Chinese, which in practice follows the same tradition of the Mandarin dialects. The name "Mandarin" originally referred to the standard language based on the imperial court in Beijing, but has been extended to cover Mandarin dialects. This article will use the phrases "Mandarin Chinese" or "Mandarin dialects" for the latter usage.

Contents

Names

Mandarin is officially known

  • in mainland China, Hong Kong[4] and Macau as Putonghua (simplified Chinese: 普通话; traditional Chinese: 普通話; pinyin: Pǔtōnghuà; literally "common speech").
  • in Taiwan as Guoyu, and unofficially in Hong Kong as Gwok Yu (simplified Chinese: 国语; traditional Chinese: 國語; Mandarin Pinyin: Guóyǔ; Jyutping: gwok3 jyu5; literally "national language").
  • in Malaysia and Singapore as Huayu (simplified Chinese: 华语; traditional Chinese: 華語; pinyin: Huáyǔ; literally "Chinese (in a cultural sense) language"). In other parts of the world, the three names are used interchangeably to varying degrees, Putonghua being the most common.

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