A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible subdivision of an IP network. The practice of dividing a network into subnetworks is called subnetting.
All computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with a common, identical, most-significant bit-group in their IP address. This results in the logical division of an IP address into two fields, a network or routing prefix and the rest field. The rest field is a specific identifier for the computer or the network interface.
The routing prefix is expressed in CIDR notation. It is written as the first address of a network followed by the bit-length of the prefix, separated by a slash (/) character. For example, 192.168.1.0/24 is the prefix of the Internet Protocol Version 4 network starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network prefix, and the rest (8 bits) reserved for host addressing. The IPv6 address specification 2001:db8::/32 is a large network for 296 hosts, having a 32-bit routing prefix. In IPv4 the routing prefix is also specified in the form of the subnet mask, which is expressed in quad-dotted decimal representation like an address. For example, 255.255.255.0 is the network mask for the 192.168.1.0/24 prefix.
Traffic between subnetworks is interchanged with special gateway computers called routers; they constitute logical or physical borders between the subnets.
The benefits of subnetting vary with each deployment scenario. In the address allocation architecture of the Internet using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and in large organizations, it is necessary to allocate address space efficiently. It may also enhance routing efficiency, or have advantages in network management when subnetworks are administratively controlled by different entities in a larger organization. Subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning an organization's network address space into a tree-like routing structure.
Network addressing and routing
Computers participating in a network such as the Internet each have at least one logical address. Usually this address is unique to each device and can either be configured dynamically from a network server, statically by an administrator, or automatically by stateless address autoconfiguration.
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