System call

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In computing, a system call is how a program requests a service from an operating system's kernel that it does not normally have permission to run. System calls provide the interface between a process and the operating system. Most operations interacting with the system require permissions not available to a user level process, e.g. I/O performed with a device present on the system, or any form of communication with other processes requires the use of system calls.

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Privileges

The fact that improper use of the system call can easily cause a system crash necessitates some level of control. The design of the microprocessor architecture on practically all modern systems (except some embedded systems) offers a series of rings or CPU modes -- the (low) privilege level in which normal applications execute limits the address space of the program so that it cannot access or modify other running applications nor the operating system itself. It also prevents the application from directly using devices (e.g. the frame buffer or network devices). But obviously many normal applications need these abilities; therefore, pre-defined system calls are made available by the operating system. The operating system executes at the highest level of privilege, and allows applications to request services via system calls, which are often implemented through interrupts. If allowed, the system enters a higher privilege level, executes a specific set of instructions over which the interrupting program has no direct control, returns to the calling application's privilege level, then returns control to the calling application. This concept also serves as a way to implement security.

With the development of separate operating modes with varying levels of privilege, a mechanism was needed for transferring control safely from lesser privileged modes to higher privileged modes. Less privileged code could not simply transfer control to more privileged code at any point and with any processor state. To allow it to do so would allow it to break security. For instance, the less privileged code could cause the higher privileged code to execute in the wrong order, or provide it with a bad stack..

The library as an intermediary

Generally, systems provide a library that sits between normal programs and the operating system, usually an implementation of the C library (libc), such as glibc. This library exists between the OS and the application, and increases portability.

On exokernel based systems, the library is especially important as an intermediary. On exokernels, libraries shield user applications from the very low level kernel API, and provide abstractions and resource management.

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