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Coordinates: 41°49′55″N 88°15′06″W / 41.831904°N 88.251715°W / 41.831904; -88.251715

The Tevatron is a circular particle accelerator in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory just east of Batavia, Illinois and is the second highest energy particle collider in the world after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Tevatron is a synchrotron that accelerates protons and antiprotons in a 6.28 km (3.90 miles) ring to energies of up to 1 TeV, hence the name.[1] The Tevatron was completed in 1983 at a cost of $120 million ($265 million today[2]) and has been regularly upgraded since then. (The 'Energy Doubler', as it was known then, produced its first accelerated beam — 512 GeV — on July 3, 1983.[3]) The Main Injector was the most substantial addition, built over five years from 1994 at a cost of $290 million ($639 million today[2]).

The Tevatron is expected to cease operations in 2011 as it is made obsolete by the LHC,[4] which was originally expected to be fully operational by early 2010. Problems and repairs at the LHC mean that it may not operate at full capacity until 2012, sparking the possibility that Tevatron may stay online through 2012.[5] The main ring of the Tevatron will probably be reused in future experiments, and its components may be transferred to other particle accelerators.[6]



The acceleration occurs in a number of stages. The first stage is the 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton pre-accelerator, which ionizes hydrogen gas and accelerates the negative ions created using a positive voltage. The ions then pass into the 150 meter long linear accelerator (linac) which uses oscillating electrical fields to accelerate the ions to 400 MeV. The ions then pass through a carbon foil, to remove the electrons, and the charged protons then move into the Booster.[7]

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