Theory of relativity

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The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.[1] However, the word "relativity" is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance.

The term "theory of relativity" was based on the expression "relative theory" (German: Relativtheorie) used by Max Planck in 1906, who emphasized how the theory uses the principle of relativity. In the discussion section of the same paper Alfred Bucherer used for the first time the expression "theory of relativity" (German: Relativit├Ątstheorie).[2][3]

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The theory of relativity enriched physics and astronomy during the 20th century. When first published, relativity superseded a 200-year-old theory of mechanics elucidated by Isaac Newton. It changed perceptions.[4][5][6]

For example, it overturned the concept of motion from Newton's day, into all motion is relative. Time was no longer uniform and absolute, as related to everyday experience. Furthermore, no longer could physics be understood as space by itself, and time by itself. Instead, an added dimension had to be taken into account with curved spacetime. Time now depended on velocity, and contraction became a fundamental consequence at appropriate speeds.[4][5][6]

In the field of microscopic physics, relativity catalyzed and added an essential depth of knowledge to the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with introducing the nuclear age. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars, black holes, and gravitational waves.[4][5][6]

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