Thoth

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Thoth (pronounced /ˈθoʊθ/ or /ˈtoʊt/; from Greek, from Egyptian ḏḥwty, perhaps pronounced ḏiḥautī) was considered one of the more important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat.[1] Thoth's chief shrine was located in the city of Khmun,[2] later renamed Hermopolis Magna during the Greco-Roman era[3] (in reference to him through the Greeks' interpretation that he was the same as their god Hermes) and Eshmûnên in the Coptic rendering. In that city, he led the Ogdoad pantheon of eight principal deities. He also had numerous shrines within the cities of Abydos, Hesert, Urit, Per-Ab, Rekhui, Ta-ur, Sep, Hat, Pselket, Talmsis, Antcha-Mutet, Bah, Amen-heri-ab, and Ta-kens.[4]

Thoth was often considered to be the heart—which, according to the ancient Egyptians, is the seat of intelligence or the mind—and tongue of the sun god Ra, as well as the means by which Ra's will was translated into speech.[5] He was also related to the Logos of Plato[5] and the mind of God[6] (see The All). He played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at, who was also his wife) who stood on either side of Ra's boat.[7] In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes,[8] the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science,[9] and the judgment of the dead.[10]

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