Tiglath-Pileser III

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Tiglath-Pileser III (from the Hebraic form[1] of Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Esharra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC)[2][3] and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[4][5]

Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. Assyrian forces became a standing army. Tiglath-Pileser III subjected Babylonia to tribute, severely punished Urartu (Armenia), and defeated the Medes and the Hittites. He reconquered Syria (destroying Damascus) and the Mediterranean seaports of Phoenicia. Tiglath-Pileser III also occupied Philistia and Israel. Later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III assumed total control of Babylonia.

Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule, with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire. He is considered to be one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.

Contents

Origins

Former governor of Kalhu[4] and a general, Pulu was a usurper who assumed his Assyrian throne name from two more legitimate predecessors. He described himself as a son of Adad-nirari III in his inscriptions, but it is uncertain if this is truthful. He seized the throne in the midst of civil war on 13 Ayaru, 745 BC.[6][7] As a result of Pulu seizing the throne in a bloody coup d'état, the royal family was slaughtered,[4] and Assyria was set on the path to empire in order to ensure the survival of the kingdom.[4]

Reign

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