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Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor
Politics and the University Center for Human Values,
Director of the University Center for Human Values



University Center for Human Values
Louis Marx Hall, 304      
tel. 609-258-4763
Princeton , New Jersey 08544-1006  
fax  609-258-4772


Director of the University Center for Human Values, Princeton (2001-current).
Founding Director of the Program in Law and Public Affairs, Princeton (1999-2001)

Michael O. Sawyer Professor of Constitutional Law and Politics
        Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University (1994-1999)
Harvard University , Government Department
        Assistant Professor (1986-1990), Associate Professor (1990-1994)

Ph.D. in Politics, Princeton University (1987)
M.Litt. in Politics, Oxford University (Balliol) (1985)
M.A. in Politics, Princeton University (1984)
M.Sc. in the History of Political Thought, The London School of Economics (1980)
B.A.  The College of William and Mary (1979)
        Phi Beta Kappa -- Magna Cum Laude
        Drapers' Co. of London Exchange Scholarship



Democracy at Risk: How Political Choices Undermine Citizen Participation, and What We Can Do About It (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005, in press, forthcoming spring, 280pp ms); Stephen Macedo and 15 co-authors, including Robert Putnam, Margaret Levi, William Galston, and others.

Political Exclusion and Domination: NOMOS XLVI, Melissa Williams and Stephen Macedo, co-editors and co-authors of the introduction ( New York : New York University Press, 2005). 

Educating Citizens: International Perspectives on Civic Values and School Choice , co-edited by Patrick J. Wolf and Stephen Macedo, with David Ferrero and Charles Venegoni; introduction by Macedo and Wolf (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2004).

American Constitutional Interpretation, 3rd edition, co-authored and co-edited with Walter F. Murphy, James E. Fleming, and Sotirios A. Barber (Foundation Press, 2003), 1651 pp.

Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes Under International Law, Principles and Papers of the Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdiction, ed. and intro. by Stephen Macedo
( University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003). 

Child, Family, and the State, NOMOS XLIV, edited with Iris Marion Young
(New York University Press, 2003).

Secession and Self-Determination, NOMOS XLV, Stephen Macedo and Allen Buchanan, eds. ( New York : New York University Press, 2003).

Moral and Political Education, NOMOS XLIII, co-edited with Yael Tamir, introduction by Macedo ( New York : New York University Press, 2002).

Diversity and Distrust: Civic Education in a Multicultural Democracy
( Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 2000; paperback March 2003).

Designing Democratic Institutions, NOMOS XLII, co-edited and introduced with Ian Shapiro
( New York University Press, 2000).

Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagareement, edited and introduced by Stephen Macedo
(New York: Oxford University Press, September 1999)

Reassessing the Sixties: Debating the Political and Cultural Legacy, edited and introduced by Stephen Macedo
(New York: W.W. Norton, 1997)

Liberal Virtues: Citizenship, Virtue, and Community in Liberal Constitutionalism
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990, paperback, 1991, 1992)
Bulgarian, Polish, and Slovak translations

The New Right v. The Constitution, 2nd edition (Washington, D.C.: Cato Inst.,1987)
            - Excerpted in The New York Times as "Required Reading : On the Constitution"
                      (Thurs., Aug. 7, 1986, p. A22)
            -  in Philosophy of Law, Conrad Johnson, ed. (Macmillan, 1992)
            -  in Constitutional Theory,  M. Gerhardt and T. D. Rowe, eds. (Michie, 1993)

Forthcoming CO-Edited volume:

Toleration on Trial, Ingrid Creppell, Russell Hardin, and Stephen Macedo, co-editors and co-authors of the introduction (Under review at several university presses).

Co-authored Report:

“School Choice: Doing it the Right Way Makes a Difference: A Report of the National Commission on Choice in K-12 Education,” published by the Brown Center on Education Policy at The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 2004.


“What Self-Governing Peoples Owe to One Another: Universalism, Diversity, and The Law of Peoples,” Fordham Law Review, Special Symposium Issue on Rawls and the Law, Summer 2004. 

- A Translation in Farsi will be published in the proceedings of a conference on “Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights,” held at Mofid University , Qom , Iran , May, 2003. 
- A revised version will be published in conference proceedings being edited by Christopher L. Eisgruber. 

“Equity and School Choice: How can we Bridge the Gap Beween Ideals and Realities?” for School Choice: The Moral Debate, ed. Alan Wolfe (Princeton University Press, 2003).

“Liberalism and Group Identities,” for Education and Citizenship in Liberal-Democratic Societies: Teaching for Cosmopolitan Values and Collective Identities, ed. Kevin McDonough and Walter Feinberg ( Oxford University Press, 2003).   

“The Trouble With Bonding,” The Responsive Community v. 12, # 4 (Fall 2002), 16-27.

 “Social Capital as Substantive Morality,” Fordham Law Review LXIX (no. 5, April 2001), pp. 1573-1593.
            - A revised and abbreviated version appears in The Responsive Community, Fall 2002.

"The Constitution of Civil Society: School Vouchers, Religious Nonprofit Organizations, and Liberal Public Values," Chicago-Kent Law Review, vol. 75 (2000), pp. 417-452. 

“Hayek’s Liberal Legacy,” The Cato Journal, v. 19, no. 2 (1999), pp. 289-300.

"Transitions to What?: On Liberal Democratic Citizenship," Pathways to Democracy: The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions, ed. James Frank Hollifield and Calvin C. Jillson (Routledge, 1999). 

 “Transformative Constitutionalism and the Case of Religion: Defending the Moderate Hegemony of Liberalism," with a critical comment by Richard Flathman, and a reply by the author, Political Theory, v. 26, no. 1 (February 1998), pp. 56-89. 
            - Revised and reprinted for Constitutional Politics: Essays on Constitution Making, Maintenance and Change, ed. by Sotirios A. Barber and Robert George ( Princeton : Princeton University Press, summer 2001).

 “In Defense of Liberal Public Reason: Are Abortion and Slavery Hard Cases?” American Journal of Jurisprudence, Vol. 42 (1997 – published in 1998), pp. 1-29, with a response by Robert George and Christopher Wolff.

"Diversity and Distrust: Moral Plurality, Civic Education, and American Liberalism,”

Occasional Paper, Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics, Indiana University , Oct. 1997.

"Sexuality and Liberty : Making Room for Nature and Tradition?," in Sex, Preference, and Family: Essays on Law and Nature, ed. David Estlund and Martha Nussbaum (Oxford University Press, 1997). 

"Against the Old Sexual Morality of the New Natural Law," in Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, ed. Robert George (Oxford University Press, 1996).

“Community, Diversity, and Civic Education: Toward a Liberal Political Science of Group Life," Social Philosophy and Policy, v. 13, no. 1, Winter 1996, pp.  240-68, also published in The Communitarian Critique of Liberalism, ed. Ellen F. Paul, Jeffrey Paul, and Fred Miller (Cambridge University Press), pp. 240-68
            - A revised version in Portuguese published in Liberalismo: o Antigo e o Novo (Liberalism: Ancient and Modern], eds. Joao Carolos Espada, Marc F. Plattner, and Adam Wolfson (Lisboa: Imprensa de Ciencias Sociais, 2002).

"Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind," and "Reply to Critics" (Robert George and Gerard Bradley, and Hadley Arkes), Georgetown Law Journal, v. 84 (December 1995), pp. 261-300, 329-338.
            - winner of the 1997 Berger Prize of the American Philosophical Association, for the best article in Law and Philosophy for the last two years

      -         reprinted in Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate (Praeger 2003), ed. Lynn D.       Wardle, Mark Strasser, William C. Duncan, and David Orgon Coolidge.

"Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: The Case of God vs. John Rawls?" Ethics, v. 105 (April 1995), pp. 468-96.
            - reprinted in John Rawls: Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers, ed.Chandran Kukathas ( London : Routledge, 2003).

"Multiculturalism for the Religious Right? Defending Liberal Civic Education," Journal of the Philosophy of Education, v. 29, no. 2 ( UK , 1995), and in Democratic Education in a Multicultural Society, Y. Tamir, ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995).

"Justice, the Rule of Law, and the Politics of Moderation," NOMOS XXXVI: The Rule of Law, Randy Barnett and Ian Shapiro, eds. (New York University Press, 1994).

"Charting Liberal Virtues," in NOMOS XXXIV: The Virtues, William A. Galston and John W. Chapman, eds. (New York University Press, 1992).

"Morality and the Constitution: Toward A Synthesis for `Earthbound' Interpreters," 61 University of Cincinnati Law Review, Special Issue on Natural Law, (1992), pp. 29-48.

"The Politics of Justification," Political Theory, v. 18, no. 2 (May, 1990), pp. 280-304.
            - reprinted in Public Reason, Fred D’Agostino and Gerald F. Gaus, eds., International Research Library of Philosophy (Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot, UK, 1998).

"Economic Liberty and the Future of Constitutional Self- Government," with a comment by Prof. Richard Epstein, Economic Rights and the Future of Constitutional

Development, ed. E. F. Paul and H. Dickman (Albany: SUNY Press, 1990).

"Liberal Virtues, Constitutional Community," Review of Politics, v. 50, no. 2 (Sp 1988).

“Capitalism, Citizenship, and Community," Social Philosophy and Policy: Special Issue on Capitalism, v. 6, no. 1 (1988).
            - Reprinted in Capitalism, ed. E.F. Paul, et al. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989)
            - in Citizenship: A Critical Concept, ed. B. Turner and P. Hamilton (Routledge, 1993)
            - and in Group Rights, ed. J. Stapleton (Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 1995)

"The New Right and Constitutional Self-Government in America ," Praxis International, v. 8, no. 2 (Summer 1988).

"The Public Morality of the Rule of Law: A Critique of Ronald Dworkin," Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy  vol. 8, no. 1 (1985), 79-108, comment by Prof. Henry Veatch.



Uncivic Diversity,” a comment on Peter Schuck’s Diversity in America , Yale Law and Policy Review, forthcoming. 

“School Reform and Equal Opportunity in America ’s Geography of Inequality,” review essay, Perspectives on Politics, vol. 1, no. 4 (December 2003), pp. 743-755.

“An Interview With Stephen Macedo,” interview by Mitja Sardoc, Theory and Rersearch in Education, vol. 1, no. 3 (November 2003), pp. 343-357. 

 “The Perils of Diversity,” review of William A. Galston, Liberal Pluralism, in The American Prospect, December. 30, 2002, pp. 36-39.

"Religion at the Margins of the Academy," in "Symposium: God in the Academy," Academic Questions, Spring 1996, v. 9, pp. 21-5.

"Communitarian Liberalism: A Reply to Philip Selznick," The Responsive Community, vol.5, Issue 2 (1995), pp. 89-92.

"Liberal Civic Education and its Limits: A Comment on Eamonn Callan," Canadian Journal of Education, v. 20, no. 3 (1995), pp. 304-14.

Rewiew of Donald Moon, Constructing Community, Political Theory, May 1995, pp. 389-92.

Review of William F. Harris, III, The Interpretable Constitution (Johns Hopkins, 1993), in the American Political Science Review, 1994.

"Fundamentalism and Toleration," Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Robert Goodin and Philip Pettit, eds. (Blackwell, 1993).

"Reasons, Rhetoric, and the Ninth Amendment: A Comment on Sanford Levinson," Chicago-Kent Law Review: Symposium on the Ninth Amendment, v. 64, no. 1 (1988), reprinted in The Rights Retained by the People: Constitutional Interpretation and the Ninth Amendment, ed. Randy Barnette (Fairfax: Geo. Mason University Press, 1992).

"Justice, Sex, and Doing the Dishes," Review Essay on Catherine A. Mackinnon, Toward a Feminist Theory of the State, and Susan Moller Okin, Justice, Gender, and the Family, in Polity, v. xxiv (1992), pp. 515-25.

Review of Cass Sunstein's After the Rights Revolution, Political Theory, Aug. 1991, pp. 456-61.

"From Douglass to Thomas" [Frederick Douglass to Clarence Thomas], cover article, The New Republic, September 30, 1991, pp. 23-5.

"Stricter Senate Review" [of Supreme Court nominees], New York Times, Oct. 23, 1991, p. A23.

“Judge Thomas’s Conservative Activism,” Wall Street Journal, July 11, 1991, p. A-11.

"Originalism and the Inescapability of Politics," Review Essay on Robert Bork's, The Tempting of America, Northwestern University Law Review, v. 84 (1990), 1203-14, reply by Raoul Berger, v. 85, #4 (1991).

"Soft Core," review of Sanford Levinson's Constitutional Faith, New Republic , Dec. 26, 1988.

"The Endangered Branch: The Judiciary Under Reagan," in Assessing the Reagan Years, ed. David Boaz (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1988).

"Majority Power, Moral Skepticism, and the New Right's Constitution," in Economic Liberties and the Judiciary,  J. Dorn and H. Manne eds., (George Mason U. Press, 1987).

Review of Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, The Supreme Court, and Free Speech (Viking, 1987), for The Los Angeles Times, Sunday Book Review, Dec. 1987.


First Chair of the American Political Science Association Standing Committee on Civic Education and Engagement (September 2002 – September 2004), principal coauthor of our collective report, Democracy at Risk: How Political Choices Undermine Citizen Participation and What We Can Do About It (Brookings Institution Press, May 2005)

Democracy at Risk reveals the dangers of civic disengagement for the future of representative democracy.  Most importantly, it argues that we should not simply blame citizens. Rather, our political system itself is at fault: it dampens citizen involvement, sharpens the disparities between rich and poor citizens, and discourages attention to campaigns and important political issues.  The authors document recent trends in civic engagement, show how those trends have been shaped by the design of political institutions and public policies, and recommend ways to improve the amount, quality, and distribution of civic engagement.  They focus on three key areas: the electoral process,  including elections and the way people get involved in campaigns; the American metropolis, including the impact of location, demographic shifts, and changing development patterns; and the critical role of nonprofit organizations and voluntary associations, including the philanthropy that helps keep them going.

                This important project, undertaken with the support of the American Political Science Association, tests the proposition that scholarship provides useful insights on the state of our democratic life.  Most importantly, it charts a course for reinvigorating civic participation in the world’s most powerful democracy.

Democracy at Risk, continued:

                The authors: Stephen Macedo (Princeton University), Yvette Alex-Assensoh (Indiana University), Jeffrey M. Berry (Tufts), Michael Brintnall (American Political Science Association), David E. Campbell (Notre Dame), Luis Ricardo Fraga (Stanford), Archon Fung (Harvard), William A. Galston (University of Maryland), Christopher F. Karpowitz (Princeton), Margaret Levi (University of Washington), Meira Levinson (Boston Public Schools), Keena Lipsitz (University of California–Berkeley), Richard G. Niemi (University of Rochester), Robert D. Putnam (Harvard), Wendy M. Rahn (University of Minnesota), Rob Reich (Stanford), Robert R. Rodgers (Princeton), Todd Swanstrom (Saint Louis University), and Katherine Cramer Walsh (University of Wisconsin). 

Chair of the Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdiction (2000-2003). 

The Project represents a three-year effort that brought together dozens of scholars and jurists to study universal jurisdiction and formulate The Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction (Princeton University Publications, July 2001; available on line at as well as a collection of essays, Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes Under International Law, Principles and Papers of the Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdiction, ed. Stephen Macedo (University of Pennsylvania Press, forthcoming, Spring 2003).  Universal jurisdiction is based on the claim that some atrocities--like genocide, torture, and war crimes-- are so heinous and so universally abhorred that any state is entitled to prosecute in its national courts without regard to where the crime was committed or the nationality of the perpetrators or the victims. The Princeton Principles are designed to guide the responsible use of universal jurisdiction.  The sponsors of the Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdiction, are Princeton University ’s Program in Law and Public Affairs, the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the International Commission of Jurists, the American Association for the International Commission of Jurists, the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, and The Urban Morgan Institute for Human Rights.  The Princeton Principles have been translated into five languages and disseminated by the United Nations.

Member of the National Working Commission on Choice in K-12 Education, sponsored by the Brookings Institution and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and chaired by Paul T. Hill (2001-2003). 

Conference Organizer and Chair, “Regulating School Choice to Promote Civic Values: What Can the US Learn from the Experience of Other Nations?” Brookings/Gates National Working Commission on School Choice, International Conference at the Institute for US Studies, University of London, April 10-12, 2003

Founding Board Member, Committee on the Political Economy of the Good Society, University of Maryland .

Member of the National Advisory Committee, Center for Civic Education, Project on International Standards for the Teaching of Civics and Government (2000-1); and Project on National Standards for the Teaching of Civics and Government (1994-5).

Co-Organizer (with Kim Scheppele and Karol Soltan) of the Conference Group on Jurisprudence and Public Law, American Political Science Association, 1994-7.


Ethics, Editorial Board Member
Editor of NOMOS: Yearbook of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy

Political Theory, Executive Editorial Board Member (2000-2004)
American Political Science Review , Editorial Board Member (1997-2001)
Critical Review, Contributing Editor 
Journal of Law and Politics, Advisory Board Member ( University of Virginia )
Polity, the Journal of the Northeast Political Science Association, Editorial Board Member (1994-1998)


Princeton University Positions:

- Director of the Program in Ethics and Public Affairs, cosponsored by the University Center for Human Values and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (2000-present)
- Chair of the Tanner Lecture Committee, Princeton University (2001-current)
- Member of the Executive Committee of the Program in Law and Public Affairs (1999-current)
- Member of the Executive Committee of the Bobst Center for Peace and Justice (2004-current)  


Course Taught Include:

At Harvard University : Gov 10, Introduction to Political Philosophy: Citizenship in Four Regimes; Gov 98, Sophomore Tutorial: Problems in American Constitutionalism; Moral Reasoning 44, Public and Private; undergraduate seminars on constitutional theory and political theory; graduate course on Liberalism and Its Critics, and Government Departmental Field Seminar: Political Theory for Non-Theorists.    

At Syracuse University: undergraduate sequence on American Constitutional Law, and American Civil Liberties; graduate courses on Liberalism, Civil Society, and Public Policy; Liberalism and Its Critics; and Constitutional Theory.

At Princeton University : Pol 308/WWS 301: Ethics and Public Policy (enrollment 240, spring 2005); Freshman Seminar on Politics and Religion; graduate courses on Liberalism and its Critics; on Inequality; and on Liberalism, Civil Society, and Public Policy.

CONFERENCES, TALKs, Public Activity:

Invited lectures and seminars at universities have included Oxford, Harvard, Brown, Yale, Cornell, Ottawa, Princeton, Stanford, Tulane, Rochester, Toronto, William and Mary, the University of Chicago, Colgate, Southern Methodist University, University of Michigan; at universities abroad including Australian National University, Australian Defense Force Academy, Mofid University in Qom Iran, Sciences Po in Paris, University of Tokyo, Waseda University, Kobe University, University of Peking, University of Hong Kong; at law schools including University of Chicago, Chicago-Kent, Fordham, New York University, Yale, and Cornell; at the Arrabida Seminars in Portugal, the Poynter Center at Indiana University, the Justice Department in Washington, D.C., and  Summer Institutes of the National Endowment for the Humanities organized by the Center for Civic Education, in Calabasas, California.  

Keynote and Plenary Addresses include the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (2005); Annual Meeting of the British Society for the Philosophy of Education (1996); International Conference on Citizenship and Civic Education in Democracies, Ljubljana , Slovenia (1998).  


Visiting Professor, University Center on Ethics and the Professions, Harvard University (2002-2003).  

Laurance S. Rockefeller Visiting Fellow and Fellow in Ethics and Public Affairs, The University Center for Human Values and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton Univ., 1994-5.  

Visiting Scholar, Social Philosophy & Policy Center , Bowling Green , Oh., Spring, 1991.

Visiting Research Fellowship, Australian Defense Force Academy, Political Science Department, University College, Canberra, Australia, Spring,1990.  

Bradley Foundation grant, 1992.  

Earhart Foundation grants, 1992, 1994.

Smith Richardson Foundation, grants, 1989, 1994.

F. Leroy Hill Summer Fellowship, Institute for Humane Studies, 1990, 1986.  

American Express Fund for Curricular Development, 1988, 1991.