Alliances Useful Anymore?" Washington Quarterly
Symposium, Spring 2004.
In a coalition-based world, what role do alliances play today? Perspectives
from Kurt M. Campbell, Dingli Shen and Bruno Tertrais.
Sources of Terrorist Conduct" by Robert L. Hutchings.
(Speech to the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society, University
of Virginia, March 19, 2004)
Changed World" by George P. Shultz. (Kissinger Lecture
at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., February 11, 2004)
Terrorism is the method of choice of an extensive, internationally
connected ideological movement dedicated to the destruction of our
international system of cooperation and progress. The diplomacy
of incentives, containment, deterrence, and prevention, are all
made more effective by the demonstrated possibility of forceful
preemption. The message is that the U.S. and others in the world
who recognize the need to sustain our international system will
no longer quietly acquiesce in the take-over of states by lawless
dictators who then carry on their depredations – including
the development of awesome weapons for threats, use, or sale –
behind the shield of protection that statehood provides. Action
in Iraq has important implications for Israeli-Palestinian issues
and for our own dangerous dependence on imported oil.
Existing Rights, Evolving Responsibilities" by Richard
N. Haass. (Remarks to the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown
University, January 14, 2003)
One of the most profound changes in international relations is the
reality that sovereignty is neither absolute nor unconditional.
While sovereignty remains an essential foundation for peace, democracy,
and prosperity, it is being challenged from both within and without.
Weak states struggle to exercise legitimate authority within their
territories. Globalization makes it harder for all nations to control
their frontiers. Governments trade freedom of action for the benefits
of multilateral cooperation. And outlaw regimes jeopardize their
sovereign status by pursuing reckless policies fraught with danger
for their citizens and the international community. We need to adjust
our thinking and our actions to these new realities.
"The Unipolar Moment Revisited"
by Charles Krauthammer. National Interest, Winter 2002/2003,
Issue 70, p5.
The two defining features of the new post-Cold War world remain:
unipolarity and rogue states with weapons of mass destruction. The
first and most urgent task is protection from these weapons. Post-9/11doctrines
amount to an unprecedented assertion of American freedom of action
and a definitive statement of new American unilateralism. It has
produced the first crisis of unipolarity, revolving around the central
question: who will define the hegemon’s ends? The new unilateralism
defines American interests far beyond narrow self-defense. In particular,
it identifies two other major interests, both global: extending
the peace by advancing democracy and preserving the peace by acting
as balancer of last resort. Unilateralism does not mean seeking
to act alone. It simply means that one does not allow oneself to
be hostage to others.
U.S. Commission on National
Security in the 21st Century
- "New World Coming: American Security
in the 21st Century" (Sep 1999)
- "Seeking a National Strategy: A Concert
for Preserving Security and Promoting Freedom" (April
- "Roadmap for National Security: Imperative
for Change" (Feb 2001)
L20: The G20 at the Leader's Level
National Intelligence Council
National Intelligence Council 2020