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Re d acted by Daniel Heyman and Nick Flynn


Daniel Heyman and Nick Flynn, Re d acted ([Philadelphia: Heyman, 2011]). Copy 1 of 8, signed and numbered by the artist and the writer. Graphic Arts GAX 2011- in process


Over the past four years, Daniel Heyman, Princeton University Lecturer in Visual Arts, has been making images about the war in Iraq, specifically the abuse and torture of innocent Iraqis at Abu Ghraib and other prisons. For this work, Heyman traveled to Jordan and Turkey where he has talked face to face with over forty-five former detainees. As they spoke, Mr. Heyman created drypoint portraits, surrounded with the words of their testimonies. The resulting Amman Portfolio was acquired by the Princeton University Art Museum, among many others.

More recently, Heyman has been collaborating with another Guggenheim Fellow, New York City writer Nick Flynn, who was also in Istanbul for 2007 testimonies. The result (finished a few days ago) is an oversize livre d’artiste entitled Re d acted, containing nine hand printed portraits of Iraqi torture victims and seven poems by Flynn. The Graphic Arts collection is proud to own copy no. 1 of 8.


Heyman’s chine-collé images were drawn on copper plates while in Istanbul, during the interviews with former detainees of Abu Ghraib and other American run Iraqi prisons. Heyman shared the texts from these and other portraits with Flynn, who used them as inspiration for the suite of seven poems, Re d acted.

The chine-collé prints were editioned by Cindi Ettinger at CR Ettinger Studio (Philadelphia, PA). Flynn’s poems were designed by Daniel Heyman and Marisha Simons, and editioned by Brian Garner at Litho Shop, Inc (Baltimore, MD). The book was hand bound at Hope Bindery and Box Company (Providence, RI).

On the way to the toilet
count five & pee, —no one

told me why. One night I
woke up, they chose

& start giving, I had
five to forget—

they gave me three more.

Forty days later & he was
the one, he took the body of

the dead to the gates

For more about Heyman:
For more about Flynn
You might also want to read The Ticking is the Bomb, Flynn’s 2010 memoir, in which he talks about his experiences in Istanbul. (Firestone PS3556.L894 Z468 2010).

Warja Honnegger-Lavater


The Swiss graphic designer Warja Honegger-Lavater (1913-2007) created a series of fairy tales told in symbols, which were lithographed into accordion-fold books. Her first, William Tell in 1962, caught the eye of Parisian publisher Adrien Maeght, who supported the production of her books for the next thirty years.

In 1982, their Imageries were reissued in a lithographed box, including Le petit Poucet, Blanche neige, Le petit chaperon rouge, La fable du hazard, La belle au bois dormant, and Cendrillon. Princeton’s copy is a variant, with the artist’s The melody of Turdidi substituted for Le Petit chaperon rouge.

Warja Honegger-Lavater (1913-2007), Imageries (Paris: A. Maeght, 1965-1982). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2009-2618N

Salazar and the Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional


In 1933, António de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970) led a coup d’état and established the Estado Novo (New State) or the Second Republic in Portugal. Salazar’s authoritarian regime had remarkable longevity, lasting until 1968. One of his first undertakings was to establish the powerful Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional (SPN) to present a dynamic image of his country to the rest of the world. Within a year, Portugal 1934 was published.


This striking, oversize paperback is filled with high-quality graphics including photomontage, full-page bleeds, and multiple fold-outs, under the direction of Antonio Ferro, chief of propaganda and communication. To his credit, Ferro hired the best photographers and graphic artists of the time, including Alvão-Porto, A. Rasteiro, João Martins, Diniz Salgado, Ferreira da Cunha, Francisco Santos, Horácio Novais, Joshua Benoliel, and others.

There were at least three variations. Princeton’s copy has an orange cover, while others have black and green covers. There may have been more.


Portugal 1934 (Lisbon: SPN [Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional], 1934). Graphic Arts 2011-


Hogarth etched by Cruikshank

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William Hogarth (1697-1764), Hogarth Moralized. Being a Complete Edition of Hogarth’s Works … accompanied with concise and comprehensive explanations of their moral tendency by Dr. Trusler (London: J. Major, 1831). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) Cruik 1831.6

Reverend John Trusler (1735-1820) published books on medicine, farming, history, politeness, law, theology, travel, and gardening. Not content with his work in the church, he studied medicine and may or may not have finished the degree. According to the Oxford DNB, he assumed the title Dr. and described himself as a medical gentleman. In 1766, Jane Hogarth, the artist’s widow, employed Trusler to write moral commentaries on William Hogarth’s prints, which she published as The Works of Mr. Hogarth Moralized.

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Dr. Trusler’s preface begins: “So much having been said, in the course of this work, of Mr. Hogarth’s abilities, and excellence; any thing more, on that head, would be deemed tautology. I shall only say … lest I should be condemned for want of taste … that I never designed to point out that which stands so visible to the world, or, pay the public so ill a compliment, as not to imagine them as capable of judging of beauties and deformities, as one that never made them his study.”

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The 1831 edition contains eighty original prints after Hogarth, etched by a number of artists including George Cruikshank (1792-1878), who worked on The Company of Undertakers and The Public Lecture.

The book was a financial success. “The first edition of this work offered the means of studying our great artist at one-fifth of the expense of any former one—the striking novelty of bringing so singular a collection into a convenient form, and at a price within the reach of all classes, proved so very acceptable to the public, that a fine copy of the perfect work has produced five times its original cost.”

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Summer reading: The Tale of Genji



The Tale of Genji (源氏物語, Genji Monogatari) has been called the first novel. It is, at least in part, attributed to Lady Murasaki Shikibu in the early 11th century. Like Dickens did much later, the story was made public in installments or chapters, rather than as a complete book. Scholars believe that the story was finished by 1021, on 10-20 hand-written scrolls, which no longer exist. Many copies were made and at least one twelfth century scroll contains illustrations.

It would be hard to overestimate the cultural signifigance of The Tale of Genji, a work that has resonated throughout art and literature, in all periods, both in Japan and the rest of the world.


The first printed edition of The Tale of Genji was published in 1654 and includes woodcuts by Yamamoto Shunshô (1610-1682). Known as the Tale of Genji, Jou-oh Edition, our copy is complete with 54 volumes of main text and 6 commentaries, a grand total of 60 volumes.

The International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, posted a complete digitized copy at:


[Genji monogatari] [源氏物語]. Translated title: The Tale of Genji. Written in part by Murasaki Shikibu (born 978?) and illustrated by Yamamoto Shunshō (1610-1682). [Kyoto]: Rakuyō; [Kyoto]: Yao Kanbē kaihan, 1654. 54 volumes and 6 supplements. Graphic Arts (GAX 2011- in process)

In that Droll and Pleasing Manner of Mary Darly

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Mary Darly (flourished 1756-1779) managed a London print shop call The Acorn, first on Ryder’s Court, near Cranbourn Alley and later at 39 Strand, on the corner of Buckingham Street. Here’s a modern map to see where she worked:

View Mary Darly in a larger map


Darly designed and sold a variety of uncomplicated caricatures of politicians and upper class women’s fashion. Mary also taught etching and printing, probably to the very ladies she was satirized in her prints. Her husband, Matthew Darly (flourished 1741-1778) was also a printmaker and their penchant for both signing prints “M. Darly” has led to some confusion over authorship.

Mary Darly is credited with writing (and engraving) the first manual to drawing caricatures, A Book of Caricaturas on 59 Copper-Plates (1762), seen here. There is only one page of commentary, three pages of instruction, and a number of specimens.


Mary Darly (flourished 1756-1779), A Book of Caricaturas: on 59 Copper-Plates, with Ye Principles of Designing in that Droll & Pleasing Manner, with Sundry Ancient & Modern Examples & Several Well Known Caricaturas (Cornhill [London]: Printed for John Bowles, 1762). All etched and engraved. Graphic Arts GA 2005-2501N


Seba's Thesaurus

Pierre Tanje (1706-1761), after a design by Louis Fabricius Dubourg (1693-1775), Industria. Frontispiece in volume one of Albertus Seba (1665-1736), Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio [An Accurate Description of the Very Rich Thesaurus of the Principal and Rarest Natural Objects] (Amsterdam: Wetsten, Smith, Jansson-Waesberg; 1734-65). Graphic Arts Dutch prints.


The engraving seen above was found in the graphic arts collection without attribution. After some searching, Vicki Principi matched it with a spectacular thesaurus of animal specimens by the Dutch zoologist Albertus Seba. The four-volume reference work was derived from the physician’s own Cabinet of Curiosities and has been called one of the greatest natural history books ever published.

Our plate is the frontispiece for volume one, engraved by Pierre Tanje (1706-1761) after a design by the Dutch painter Louis Fabricius Dubourg (1693-1775). A quick check of Princeton University’s copy showed that the plate had not been removed from Princeton’s set and so, we now have two copies of this engraving: one bound and one unbound.

Albertus Seba collected exotic plants, snakes, birds, insects, shells, lizards and other animals. At first, these specimens were part of his profession, used to mix treatments in his pharmacy. But then, collecting grew into a personal obsession. In the early eighteenth century his entire collection was sold to Peter the Great (1672-1725) and moved to St. Petersburg, helping to establish the Russian Academy of Sciences.

For the complete set, see Albertus Seba (1665-1736), Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio (Amsterdam: Wetsten, Smith, Jansson-Waesberg; 1734-65). Rare Books EX Oversize 8607.847e

More than 100,000 copies sold in the first few days

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George Cruikshank (1792-1878), The Bottle, 1847. Two issues of the imperial folio edition; eight glyphographs with tint (right) and with hand coloring (left). Both gifts of Richard Waln Meirs, Class of 1888. Graphic Arts GA Oversize Cruik 1847.6eq

In 1847, inspired by William Hogarth’s Rake’s Progress, George Cruikshank published a graphic narrative in eight plates showing one man’s descent into sin, poverty, and insanity, due to alcoholism. More than 100,000 copies of The Bottle were sold in the first few days. The book was exported to America and Australia, dramatized at eight London theaters simultaneously, and performed as a magic lantern show.

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George’s father, Isaac Cruikshank (1756-1811), was also a successful caricaturist until he died in a drinking contest. George was himself a heavy drinker until 1847, when he signed a vow of total abstinence. The Bottle was first published while he was still drinking.

The title page for an 1881 edition carries the following message: “Mr. George Cruikshank thinks it right to state that the first edition of this Bottle (the title of which ought to have been THE BLACK BOTTLE) was first published in 1847, double the size of this edition, and sold at One Shilling. And he wishes it to be further understood that these smaller plates are taken from the original Etchings, which he has in his own possession.”

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Broadsides from George Cruikshank’s scrapbook for The Bottle 1847-1848. Rare Books: Manuscripts Collection (MSS) C0256 (Series 10, volume no. 46)

“And Mr. George Cruikshank’s [objective] in producing this work of the Bottle was to assist, if possible, in putting a stop to the poverty, misery, wretchedness, insanity, and crime which are caused by strong drink. And this Bottle was published before G.C. became a Teetotaler; but upon mature reflection he came to the conclusion that nothing would ever stop these dreadful evils but Universal Total Abstinence from all intoxicating liquors; and thus having come to the belief that it was of no use preaching without setting an example, George Cruikshank in the same year, 1847, became a Total Abstainer.”

Cruikshank reproduced his drawings by glyphography, a quicker, cheaper way of making printing plates than carving wood blocks or etching plates with acid. Patented in 1842, the glyphographic plate was made by covering copper with a thick wax resist and drawing through the wax to expose parts of the metal. The plate was then electroplated creating a metal relief line, similar to the etched metal relief plates of William Blake but much less detailed or elegant. The relief plate can then be letterpress printed along with a caption or other text.

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Above: Tom Taylor (1817-1880), The Bottle. As first performed at the City of London Theatre, in 1847 (New York: DeWitt Publishing House, [1847?]). Theatre Collection (ThX) TC023 (Playbooks Collection) Box 155. Below:The London Journal and Weekly Record of Literature, Science, and Art, November 20, 1847

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Flavius Josephus, with a map of Paradise

Flavius Josephus (37-ca.100), The Whole Genuine and Complete Works of Flavius Josephus, the Learned and Authentic Jewish Historian and Celebrated Warrior (New-York: William Durell, 1792). (GAX) Oversize Hamilton 207f

Josephus was a first century Jewish historian. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Josephus’s second work, the Jewish Antiquities (Ioudaike Archaiologia), contains in twenty books the whole history of the Jews from the Creation to the outbreak of the revolt in A.D. 66. His writings were translated into English in 1609 by Thomas Lodge (1558?-1625) and published as: The Famous and Memorable Workes of Iosephus, a Man of Much Honour and Learning among the Iewes. (William H. Scheide Library (WHS) 24.5.12).


The front cover of this early American edition is stamped in gold letters with the name of Cornelius Brinckerhoff, who was one of the original subscribers. The book is impressively illustrated with sixty plates drawn by European artists Conrad Martin Metz (1749-1827), Thomas Stothard (1755-1834), and Richard Corbould (1757-1831), then engraved in wood by some of the leading American artists of the period, including Alexander Anderson (1775-1870), Cornelius Tiebout (1773-1832), Amos Doolittle (1754-1832), William Rollinson (1762-1842), J. Allen (active 18th century), Benjamin Tanner (1775-1848), and Elkanah Tisdale (1768-1835).


Above left: The Six Days Work of Creation. Above right: A Correct Map of the Countries surrounding the Garden of Eden or Paradise.


Winslow Homer buried in advertising


At the same time that Winslow Homer (1836-1910) was drawing his most famous illustration for Harper’s Weekly, “A Sharp-Shooter on Picket Duty” (1862), he was also illustrating children’s books, including Bessie Grant’s Treasure (GAX Hamilton 1726) and Fred Freeland or The Chain of Circumstances.

Original wood engravings created after his designs for the stories were reprinted in numerous advertisements for these books. Boston publishers Walker, Wise & Co. ran sixteen pages of advertising in the back of Susan Lander’s Spectacles for Little Eyes (1862) (Graphic Arts GAX 2011- in process). Three Homer prints can be found in these back pages.

Thanks to donor Tom Lange for discovering these prints and delivering them to graphic arts where they take their place alongside the wood engravings of the Sinclair Hamilton collection.


Audubon's Four Striped Ground Squirrels

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John James Audubon (1785-1851), Tamias Quadrivittatus, Striped Ground Squirrel, 1841. Two pen and watercolor drawings. Gifts of John Stanton Williams, Class of 1925. GC154 John James Audubon Collection. Drawn for Audubon’s Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. No. 5, Plate 24 (below).

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The last ten years of Audubon’s life were spent documenting four-legged mammals. He traveled up the Missouri River and around the Southern United States with his collaborator, Reverend Dr. John Bachman (1790-1874). The original folio edition of The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-1848) contains 150 colored lithographs executed by the British engraver John T. Bowen (1801-ca. 1856), working in Philadelphia. These prints were made after watercolor drawings, about half of which are the work of Audubon and the other half were by his son, John Woodhouse Audubon (1812-1862).

Two drawings for the Striped Ground Squirrel were completed in May 1841 (the final plate combined them into one image of four squirrels). Audubon noted, “We met with this species as we were descending the Upper Missouri … we saw it first on a tree; afterwards we procured both old and young among the sandy gulleys and clay cliffs, on the sides of the ravines near one of our encampments.”

This drawing comes to Princeton thanks to John Stanton Williams (1902-1982, Class of 1925), who also donated Audubon’s shotgun. Mr. Williams was the founder of the Shaker Museum in Old Chatham, N.Y. and an ardent collector of Audubon’s work.

Often overshadowed by Birds of North America, the imperial folio edition of The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America is a scholarly and artistically beautiful work. It was not until 1952 that Quadrupeds came to Princeton University as a gift from Edwin N. Benson, Jr. Class of 1899 and Mrs. Benson, in memory of their son Peter Benson, Class of 1938. Our copy of the first edition (three volumes) was bound at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, stamped M.P.

The Loss of the Whaling Brig William and Joseph


Elisha Dexter, Narrative of the Loss of Whaling Brig William and Joseph, of Martha’s Vineyard, and the Sufferings of Her Crew for Seven Days, a Part of the Time on a Raft in the Atlantic Ocean: with an appendix, containing some remarks on the whaling business, and descriptions of the mode of killing and taking care of whales: with plates descriptive of some of the principal scenes. 2nd ed. (Boston: Charles C. Mead, 1848). Graphic Arts GAX 2011- in process


According to Dexter, the whaling brig William and Joseph departed Holmes’ Hole on August 2, 1840 in search of sperm whales. They stopped briefly at the Azores and Capre Verde islands before sailing to the West Indies, where they stopped to restock the ship.

In September 1841, the William and Joseph set sail for Boston with 200 barrels of oil. A month later, they were caught in a storm and the ship first capsized and, ten minutes later, righted itself but with significant damage. Over the next week two sailors died and the cargo was lost.

Elisha Dexter had a financial interest in the ship and published this narrative to recoup his losses. OCLC notes only one institutional copy of Dexter’s first edition and ten of the second, enlarged and improved edition. This acquisition will make it eleven.


The Art of Ingeniously Tormenting

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Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) wrote the satirical household manual Directions to Servants in 1745 (RHT 18th-581) and eight years later, Jane Collier (1715?-1755) followed with An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting (Ex 3684.585.333). Her anti-etiquette handbook provided advice on how to nag and was quickly reprinted six times.

In 1809, an illustrated edition was planned by the popular print publisher Thomas Tegg (1776-1846). The new, corrected, revised, and illustrated Essay featured five plates designed by George Moutard Woodward (1760-1809). A folded frontispiece was etched by Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) after Woodward’s drawing (GA Rowlandson 1808.11).

Collier’s narrator advised, “If you have no children, keep as large a quantity of tame animals as you conveniently can. If you have children, a smaller number will do. Shew the most extravagant fondness you possibly can for all these animals. Let them be of the most troublesome and mischievous sort, such as cats, monkeys, parrots, squirrels, and little snarling lapdogs. Their uses for the Tormenting [of] your servants are various.”

Woodward’s frontispiece, as described by Joseph Grego (1843-1908), includes a Savoyard with a barrel-organ and a troop of dancing dogs; a Frenchman with a dancing bear; and a showman dragging a dromedary, with a monkey perched on its back pulling the animal’s ears. Everyone is taunting or torturing someone else.

Graphic Arts has copies of the print in the bound volume, as a separate sheet, and in Caricature Magazine, or Hudibrastic Mirror, another project on which Woodward, Rowlandson, and Tegg were collaborating in 1808. (GA Rowlandson 1807.5f).

See also Joseph Grego (1843-1908), Rowlandson the Caricaturist (London: Chatto and Windus, 1880). Graphic Arts (GARF) Oversize NE642.R7 G8q

Journal des dames et des modes

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Journal des dames et des modes ([Paris: Aux bureau du Journal des dames, 1912-1914]). Charles Rahn Fry Pochoir Collection. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) GT500 .J62

Three times each month, from June 1912 to August 1914, the exclusive subscribers of this limited edition journal received pochoir prints by George Barbier (1882-1932), Umberto Brunelleschi (1879-1949), Roger Broders (1883-1953), and many others. The cost was 100 francs/year. Altogether 186 plates were issued, before the publication ended with the outbreak of the First World War. Note the watermark on the journal’s own hand-made paper.

A Great Little Man's Night Comforts

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Artist unidentified, Bony’s Visions or a Great Little Man’s Night Comforts, 1811. Aquatint. GC021 British Caricatures. Gift of Dickson Q. Brown, Class of 1895.

The Satirist, or Monthly Meteor was founded and edited by George Manners (1778-1853). Beginning in October 1807, the monthly journal exposed the foolishness of contemporary politicians, opening with a folded frontispiece caricature. Manners sold the magazine in 1812 to the Scottish journalist William Jerdan (1782-1869), who ran it until 1814.

This print is signed by The Caricaturist General. Several others in The Satirist are designed by Sylvester Scrutiny. Neither artist can be identified. Many are etched by “de Wilde” e.g. Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), a portrait painter and etcher who specialized in theatrical subjects.

Bony’s Visions or a Great Little Man’s Night Comforts was published in volume 9, p. 165 as an illustration to “The Vision of Buonaparte,” p.110-21, which claims to be the Emperor’s account of a dream the night after his son’s birth.

In it, we see Napoleon, wearing a night-shirt, leap from a canopied bed, terrified at the demons, goblins, and ghosts that surround him. He holds a dagger and calls, “Duroc, Savory, Roustan, aux armes aux armes.” Napoleon’s son is nursed by a demon, who says: “Dear Image of my darling Nap, / Suck milk of Hell instead of pap.”

Near the bed is a coffin marked with ‘N’ and a crown; on this are a rat and two birds; a stork and an owl. An imp with antlers, crouching on the bed-curtain, is about to knock off with a wand the crown surmounting Napoleon’s night-cap.


There is good reason the prints in The Satirist are rarely credited. George Manners and his writers were the targets of multiple lawsuits. The magazine was only two years old when Manners wrote Vindiciæ Satiricæ, or a Vindication of the Principles of the “Satirist,” (1809) documenting the action brought by Peter Finnerty.

Three years later, Thomas Gill wrote, Libels: a Statement of the Trial of an Indictment against George Manners, … 1st June, 1811, for Libels in The Satirist of the 1st May, 1809, and 1st September, 1810, on the Character of William Hallett, Esq., upon which Indictment the Defendant was Found Guilty….


In the third volume, Manners published a statement:
Notwithstanding the unparalleled opposition which we have experienced, and the multitude of hostile scoundrels whom we have encountered, our publication is daily increasing its circulation….

We have dragged from their filthy dens a horde of miscreants, who battened on the fruits of slander, who mangled and destroyed alike the characters of the guilty and the innocent, and who, the moment we exposed them to the public eye, have either shrunk into their original insignificance, or only been noticed like gibbet ted murderers, for the enormity of their crimes.

…We defy our enemies to point out a single instance where we have inflicted unmerited punishment, or bestowed unjust commendation. …Adieu for the present, dear Sir Richard, thou hast afforded us much amusement, but more melancholy reflections on the pride, vain glory, and hypocrisy of mankind: if we have waged war against thy vanity, folly, and—errors, remember, we were not the first to kindle the flame!

See also William Jerdan (1782-1869), The Autobiography of William Jerdan (London: A. Hall, Virtue & Co., 1852-53).Firestone Library 3802.4.31

The Satirist, or Monthly Meteor, 1807-1814. Graphic Arts Collection Cruik 1808 v.1-14. Gift of Richard Waln Meirs, Class of 1888.

Dance of Death

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) Imagines Mortis (Lugduni: Sub scuto Coloniensi, 1547). The epigrams are attributed to Jean de Vauzelles and Gilles Corrozet. Illustration (C4v) signed by the woodcutter “HL” (i.e. Hans Lützelburger 1495?-1526). Rebound in 1987 by Jamie Kamph. Gift of Elmer Adler. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2004-3458N


Holbein’s designs were originally cut and printed in 1526 for a dance of death alphabet and then, included in an Old Testament. In 1538, forty-one of the blocks were published under the title Les simulachres & historiées faces de la mort avtant elegamtment pourtraictes, with a bible quote at the top and a poem by Gilles Corozet below. The book was banned but new editions continued to appear every few years.

This 1547 expanded edition includes fifty-seven woodcuts. The artist of the new plates remains unidentified. They are interspersed with Holbein’s designs, with no explanation as to why another artist’s work was included. In addition, three of the plates in the Princeton volume, including the title page, have contemporary hand coloring. Here are a few samples.


Thanks to John Delaney for identifying the instrument hanging at the center as an armillary sphere, described by Ptolemy as a zodiacal instrument of six rings, designed to determine the locations of celestial objects. For more, see

Street Cries Updated


In the manner of eighteenth-century street cries, photographer Sigmund Krausz staged these photographs of peddlers, beggars, and street regulars in his Chicago studio. Original prints were used to illustrate his 1892 publication Street Types of Chicago.

Four years later, he expanded the volume to include Street Types of Great American Cities, this time illustrated with half-tone reproductions of his photographs. Portraits include the iceman, milkman, letter carrier, urchins, religious fanatics, food vendors and others.

Sigmund Krausz, Street Types of Great American Cities (Chicago, New York: Werner Company, 1896) Graphic Arts Collection (GAX), F548.9.S9 K92


Another example of modern street cries was made in China by Samuel Victor Constant, who served there as an assistant to a military attaché from 1925 to 1937. While in Peking, he studied at the College of Chinese Studies, completing his master’s thesis, entitled “Calls, Sounds and Merchandise of the Peking Street Peddlers” in 1936. A copy of the work was commercially published that same year.


In 1993, Bird & Bull Press, under the leadership of Henry Morris, revived the text with new wood engravings by Rosemary Covey (seen below). Princeton also owns the 1994 Beijing edition: Samuel Victor Constant, Jing du jiao mai tu / Samo’er Weikeduo Kangsitan zhu; Tao Li yi; Tao Shangyi hui tu = Calls, Sounds & Merchandise of the Peking Street Peddlers. (Beijing: Shu mu wen xian chu ban she, 1994). East Asian Library (Gest) DS795.2 .C6612

Samuel Victor Constant, Calls, Sounds & Merchandise of the Peking Street Peddlers with Twenty-Five Wood Engravings by Rosemary Covey (Newtown [Pa.]: Bird & Bull Press, 1993). Copy 182 of 200. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2003-1335N

Trained Mice Man
Paper pattern peddler
Dried fruit and nut peddler

Expedition to the West-Indies

Richard Gardiner (1723-1781), An Account of the Expedition to the West Indies, against Martinico, with the Reduction of Guadelupe, and other the Leeward Islands, Subject to the French King, 1759, 3rd ed. (Birmingham [Eng.]; London: Printed by John Baskerville, for G. Steidel, 1762) Bound with the French translation: Relation de l’expédition aux Indes occidentales…. Bequest of Archibald S. Alexander, Class of 1928. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Baskerville 1762e


When the British Naval officer Richard Gardiner returned from a campaign against the French colonies in 1759, he published an account of the major battles at Martinique and Guadeloupe. A second edition was issued and then, in 1762, John Baskerville (1706-1775) undertook the printing of a third edition. The English account was published along with a French translation (Baskerville’s only French book). Four unsigned copperplate engraving are included between the two and Baskerville dedicated the volume to the Queen.

Tobias George Smollett (1721-1771) reviewed the book in The Critical Review (vol. 8), “If this performance was not a little too much embroidered with quotations from the classics, and, in some places, a florid Iuxuriancy of stile, we should not fear to pronounce it one of the best pieces of this kind which have appeared since the beginning of the last Spanish war. It is indeed written with such spirit, elegance, and precision … and we hope the author’s ingenuity will be thrown into the scale, with his other military qualifications, when it comes to his turn to be promoted in the service.”

New Years Resolutions: Manly Exercises


Donald Walker. British Manly Exercises: in which rowing and sailing are now first described; and riding and driving are for the first time given in a work of this kind; as well as the usual subjects of walking, running, leaping, vaulting, balancing, skating, climbing, swimming, wrestling, boxing, training, &c., &c., &c. Philadelphia: Thomas Wardle, 1836 [i.e., 1837]. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2006-1726N


Donald Walker was the Jack Lalanne of the nineteenth century. An expert on physical fitness and training, his first book (for men only) was published in 1834 and quickly sold out. Ours is an American reprint from a few years later, at the same time that Walker adapted his training exercises for women and published a companion volume, “calculated to preserve and improve beauty.”


Donald Walker, Exercises for Ladies: calculated to preserve and improve beauty, and to prevent and correct personal defects, inseparable from constrained or careless habits. 2nd ed.: with great additions and improvements as well as original communications from Madam Dulcken on the proper seat at the pianoforte, from Mr. Bochsa on the proper seat at the harp, from Mr. Schulz on the proper seat at the guitar, &c. &c. &c. London: Thomas Hurst, 1837. Rare Books (Ex) 2005-2464N

Bacchus and the Tee-Totallers

Bacchus and the Tee-Totallers by Rumfusticus Bibulus, esq., president of the Anti-Temperance Society (London: Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, 1841). Illustrations by Robert Cruikshank (1789-1856). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) Cruik R 1841.2

At left, Steam Coachman to the Moon stamped on a Riviere binding.


A collection of drinking songs (without music) by an anonymous author using the pseudonym Rumfusticus Bibulus. The text and songs are all attacks on abstinence by the fictitious Anti-Temperance Society. Here’s a piece:

“The Publicans, as well as every other branch of the community, were aware that recent improvements in modern science had effected a Rail Road from this Earth to the Moon, in which part of the Isle of Sky Bacchus has an airy summer residence; they therefore resolved to send up by the new Steam Coach, one of the Victualler Chiefs, to invite their jovial patron down to head their forces, and to fight their battles with their foes, The Tee-Totallers.”

Robert Riviere (1808-1882) established a bindery in Bath around 1829, moving to London eleven years later where he opened a shop on Great Queen Street, and then, on Piccadilly. Riviere was the top of the line and this small satirical volume must have had an important backer to finance a custom Riviere binding and six aquatinted plates by Cruikshank.

A Meeting of Victuallers

The Victuallers of old,
Were jolly and bold,
And quaff’d Brandy and Water gaily,
And were all well nurs’d
With a quart of the First,
To a pint of pump water daily!

Water when mix’d up with Spirits strong store,
No Publican dreams of scorning,
But of Water alone, why—he drinks no more,
Than his pots supply,
Of the drops that lie
In his pewter pints of a morning!

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