It has been 20 years since futurist Eric Drexler daringly predicted a world where miniaturized robots would build things one molecule at a time. The world of nanotechnology is beginning to come to pass, with scientists conjuring new applications daily.
Now Princeton scientist Salvatore Torquato
is proposing to turn a central concept of nanotechnology on its head.
If the theory bears out -- and it is in its infancy -- it could have
radical implications for the computer and telecommunications
Torquato and colleagues published a paper in the Nov. 25 issue of Physical Review Letters, the leading physics journal, outlining a mathematical approach that would enable them to produce desired configurations of nanoparticles by manipulating the manner in which the particles interact with one another.
This may not mean much to the man on the street, but to the average scientist it is a fairly astounding proposition.
“In a sense this would allow you to play God, because the method
creates on the computer new types of particles whose interactions are
tuned precisely so as to yield a desired structure,” said Pablo
Debenedetti, a professor of chemical engineering at Princeton.
The standard approach in nanotechnology is to come up with new chemical structures through trial and error, by letting constituent parts react with one other as they do in nature and then seeing whether the result is useful.
Nanotechnologists rely on something called “self-assembly,” which refers to the fact that molecular building blocks do not have to be put together in some kind of miniaturized factory-like fashion. Instead, under the right conditions, they will spontaneously arrange themselves into larger, carefully organized structures.
As the researchers point out in their paper, biology offers many extraordinary examples of self-assembly, including the formation of the DNA double helix.
But Torquato and his colleagues, visiting research collaborator Frank Stillinger and physics graduate student Mikael Rechtsman, have taken an approach not seen in nature, which they call “inverse statistical mechanics.”
“We stand the problem of self-assembly on its head,” said Torquato, who is a professor of chemistry and a member of the Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, a multidisciplinary research center devoted to materials science. Torquato is also a senior fellow at the new Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics.
Instead of employing the traditional trial-and-error method of
self-assembly that is used by nanotechnologists and which is found in
nature, Torquato and his colleagues start with an exact blueprint of
the nanostructure they want to build.
“If one thinks of a nanomaterial as a house, our approach enables a scientist to act as architect, contractor and day laborer all wrapped up in one,” Torquato said.
“We design the components of the house, such as the 2-by-4s and cement blocks, so that they will interact with each other in such a way that when you throw them together randomly they self-assemble into the desired house,” he said.
To do the same thing using current techniques, by contrast, a scientist would have to conduct endless experiments to come up with the same house. And in the end that researcher may not end up with a house at all but rather -- metaphorically speaking -- with a garage or a horse stable or a grain silo.
Paul Chaikin, a physicist at New York University and a former Princeton professor, said the Torquato paper “presents a first major success in the solution to an inverse problem.”
“It follows in the tradition of ‘The way to see if you really understand how something works is to build it from scratch,’” Chaikin said. “Or even more fundamentally, the new approach shows how to self-assemble it from scratch.”
While Torquato is a theorist rather than a practitioner, his ideas may have implications for nanostructures used in a range of applications in sensors, electronics and aerospace engineering.
“This is a wonderful example of how asking deep theoretical questions can lead to important practical applications,” said Debenedetti.
So far Torquato and his colleagues have demonstrated their concept only theoretically, with computer modeling.
They illustrated their technique by considering thin films of
particles. If one thinks of the particles as pennies scattered upon a
table, the pennies, when laterally compressed, would normally
self-assemble into a pattern called a triangular lattice.
But by optimizing the interactions of the “pennies,” or particles, Torquato made them self-assemble into an entirely different pattern known as a honeycomb lattice (called that because it very much resembles a honeycomb).
Why is this important? The honeycomb lattice is the two-dimensional
analog to the three-dimensional diamond lattice -- the creation of
which is somewhat of a holy grail in nanotechnology.
Diamonds found in nature self assemble from carbon atoms that
undergo a type of “directional bonding” that is hard to achieve in
laboratory experiments. The researchers created their pattern with
“non-directional bonding,” which was not previously thought to be
possible. This advance should give experimentalists much more
flexibility in creating useful structures, Torquato said.
Materials with diamond lattice structures are used in high-speed optical communications devices.
To create the honeycomb lattice, the researchers employed techniques of optimization, a field that has burgeoned since World War II and which is essentially the science of inventing mathematical methods to make things run efficiently.
Torquato and his colleagues hope that their efforts will be replicated in the laboratory using particles called colloids, which have unique properties that make them ideal candidates to test the theory. Chaikin said he is planning to do laboratory experiments based on the work.
“Our colloid group is actively pursuing different types of interparticle interactions using electrostatics, polymers, DNA association, van der Waals attraction and entropy which may be combined to form the types of [interactions] envisioned in this work,” said Chaikin. “An important aspect of this paper is the simplicity and robustness built into the types of interactions proposed.”
Torquato said that he and Stillinger initially had trouble
attracting research money to support their idea. Colleagues “thought it
was so far out in left field in terms of whether we could do what we
were claiming that it was difficult to get funding for it,” he said.
The work was ultimately funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences
at the U.S. Department of Energy.
“The honeycomb lattice is a simple example but it illustrates the
power of our approach,” Torquato said. “We envision assembling even
more useful and unusual structures in the future.”